Publications

Publications

* denotes student co-authors

2019

Sorochinski, M. & Salfati, C. G. et al.  (2019, forthcoming) The fourth dimension: Understanding the relationship of time intervals between crimes and behavioral consistency in homicide series.

Salfati, C. G. & Sorochinski, M. (2019, forthcoming) Profiling Sex Worker Homicide Series: Linking Offender Characteristics to Crime Scene Behaviors.

Salfati, C. G. & Sorochinski, M. (2019, in press) Sex Worker Homicide Series: Differentiating & Linking Series. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. Special Issue on Sexual Homicide.

Sorochinski, M. & Salfati, C. G. (2019, in press) Sex Worker Homicide Series: Profiling The Crime Scene. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. Special Issue on Sexual Homicide.

Salfati, C. G. (2019, in press) Consistency Of Offender Behaviors And Victim Targeting In Serial Sexual Violence: An Overview Of The Field. Chapter in Handbook of Sexual Assault and Sexual Assault Prevention. Springer.

Trojan, C., Salfati, C. G., & Schanz, K.* (2019, in press). Overkill, we know it when we see it: Examining definitions of excessive injury in homicide research. Journal of Criminal Psychology.

Woodhams, J., Tonkin, M., Burrell, A., Imre, H., Winter, J.M.; Lam, E., K., M., ten Brinke, G., J., Webb, M., Labuschagne, G., Bennell, C.., Ashmore-Hills, L., van der Kemp, J., Lipponen, S., Pakkanen, T., Rainbow, L., Salfati, C. G., & Santtila, P.  (2018) Linking Serial Sex Offences: Moving Towards an Ecologically Valid Test of the Principles of Crime Linkage. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 24, 123-140. DOI:10.1111/lcrp.12144

2018

Salfati, C. G. & Sorochinski, M. (2018) Sex worker victims: Consistency vs inconsistency in victimization patterns by serial sexual homicide offenders. In J. Proulx, A. Carter, É. Beauregard, A. Mokros, R. Darjee, J. James (Eds.) International Handbook of Sexual Homicide. Chapter 32. Routledge.

Sorochinski, M.* & Salfati, C. G. (2018). A multidimensional approach to ascertaining individual differentiation and consistency in serial sexual assault: Is it time to redefine and refine? Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 33(1), 63-83, DOI 10.1007/s11896-017-9235-z

2017

Sorochinski, M. & Salfati, C. G. (2017). Assumptions underlying behavioral linkage revisited: A revised approach to ascertaining individual differentiation and consistency in serial rape. In: P. A. Granhag, R. Bull, A. Shaboltas, & E. Dozortseva (Eds.). Psychology & Law in Europe: When West Meets East. (pp. 51-78). Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis/CRC Press. ISBN 9781498780988

Tonkin, M., Pakkanen, T., Sirén, J., Bennell, C., Woodhams, J., Burrell, A., Imre, H., Winter, J. M., Lam, E., ten Brinke, G., Webb, M., Labuschagne, G. N., Ashmore-Hills, L., van der Kemp, J. J., Lipponen, S., Rainbow, L., Salfati, C. G., & Santtila, P. (2017). Using offender crime scene behavior to link stranger sexual assaults: A comparison of three statistical approaches. Journal of Criminal Justice, 50, 19-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2017.04.002.

2016

Schanz, K.*, & Salfati, C. G. (2016). The CSI effect and its controversial existence and impact: A mixed methods review. Crime and Psychology Review, 2(1), 60-79.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744006.2016.1260276

Trojan, C.* & Salfati, C. G. (2016). Criminal history of homicide offenders: A multi-dimensional analysis of criminal specialization. Journal of Criminal Psychology, 6 (1), 28-41. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCP-09-2015-0027

2015

Salfati, C. G. & Labuschagne, G. (2015). Editorial: Serial homicide in South Africa, Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, Special Issue on South African Serial Homicide, 12(1), 1-3. doi:10.1002/jip.1435.

Labuschagne, G. & Salfati, C. G. (2015). Practice informed research and research informed practice: An examination of practice and research needs in serial homicide analysis in South Africa. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, Special Issue on South African Serial Homicide, 12(1), 4-17. doi:10.1002/jip.1415.

Salfati, C. G., Labuschagne, G., Horning, A.*, Sorochinski, M.*, and De Wet, J. (2015). Demographics of all solved serial Homicides in South Africa 1930-2007. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling,  Special Issue on South African Serial Homicide, 12(1), 18-43. doi:10.1002/jip.1425.

Horning, A.* and Salfati, C. G., & Labuschagne, G. (2015). South African serial homicide: A behavioral typology based on offender victim relationship. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, Special Issue on South African Serial Homicide, 12(1), 44-68. doi:10.1002/jip.1426.

Sorochinski, M.* & Salfati, C. G., & Labuschagne, G. (2015). Thematic classification of planning and violent behaviors in serial homicide: A cross-national comparison between South Africa and the US. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, Special Issue on South African Serial Homicide, 12(1), 69-82. doi: 10.1002/jip.1427.

Salfati, C. G., Horning, A.*, & Sorochinski, M.*, & Labuschagne, G. (2015) South African serial homicide: Consistency in victim target and behaviors across series. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, Special Issue on South African Serial Homicide, 12(1), 69-82, 83-106. doi:10.1002/jip.1428

Osborne, J.* & Salfati, C. G. (2015) Cooling off periods in Serial homicide: An Analysis of Time Intervals and Geographical Patterns. Homicide Studies, 1-18, DOI: 10.1177/1088767914526716.

2014

Salfati, C. G. (2014) A Cross National Comparison of Behavioural Consistency in Serial Homicide. In C. Bennell & J. Woodhams (Eds.) Crime Linkage: Theory, Research and Practice. Chapter 7, P.141-172. CRC Press/Taylor Francis, eBook: ISBN9781466506763.

Salfati, C. G.(2014) Violence on the Streets: The What, the Who, and the Why of Abuse, Assault & Murder of Sex Workers. In P. Clements, J. Pierce-Weeks, R. Alexander, A. P. Giardino (Eds).Violence against Women: A Contemporary Examination of Intimate Partner Violence. Chapter 27, p.515-530. STM Learning, GW Medical Publishing, Inc, ISBN-13: 978-1878060952.

2013

Salfati, C. G. (2013) Homicide Crime Scene Analysis: An Investigative Approach. In D. Youngs (ed.). Psychology Crime and Law: Behavioral Analysis of Crime – Studies in David Canters’ Investigative Psychology. Pp. 141-162. Aldershot: Ashgate. ISBN: 978-0-746-2628-2.

Salfati, C. G. (2013) Linkage Analysis of Serial Murder Cases Involving Prostitute Victims. In J. Helfgott (Ed.) Criminal Psychology reference set. Volume 3, chapter 9, p. 211-228. Praeger Publishers, ISBN: 0313396078.

Salfati C. G. (2013) Investigative Psychology. In: Siegel JA and Saukko PJ (eds.) Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition, pp. 139-143. Waltham: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-382165-2.00024-6.

Salfati, C. G. (2013, June) Practice Informed Research and Research Based Practice: An Overview of Research on Linking Serial Homicide. In J. Osborne & C. Rasche (Eds.) Proceedings of the 2013 Annual Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group. Brunswick, GA. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Hannula, K.* and Salfati, C. G. (2013, June) Paths to Homicide: An Identification of Offending Trajectories Leading to Homicide and Implications for Offender Profiling. In J. Osborne & C. Rasche (Eds.) Proceedings of the 2013 Annual Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group. Brunswick, GA. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

2012

Amber Scherer, A.*, Jarvis, J., Salfati, C. G. (2012) Current Issues in the Use of Criminal Investigative Analysis: Preliminary Findings. In J. Osborne & K. Vogt (Eds.) Proceedings of the 2012 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group, Chicago, IL https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

2011

Salfati, C. G. & Osborne, J. R.* (2011) The Homicide Profiling Index Revised to include Rape and Sexual Offenses (HPI-R): The Origin and Next Generation of Homicide Crime Scene Data Collection, Training Protocol, Evaluation & Implementation into Research Practice. Proceedings of the 2011 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group, New Orleans. LA. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Amber Scherer, A.*, Jarvis, J., Salfati, C. G. (2011, June) Current Issues in the Use of Criminal Investigative Analysis: Preliminary Findings. Proceedings of the 2011 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group, New Orleans. LA. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Trojan, C.* & Salfati, C. G. (2011). Linking criminal history to crime scene behavior in single-victim and serial homicide: Implications for offender profiling. Homicide Studies, 15(3), 3-31, DOI: 10.1177/1088767910397281.

Trojan, C.* & Salfati, C. G. (2011) Salfati, C. G. (2011) Research Methods in Offender Profiling Research. In Barry Rosenfeld and Steven Penrod (Eds.) Research Methods in Forensic Psychology. Chapter 7, pp 122-135. Wiley. ISBN: 978-0-470-24982-6.

2010

Salfati, C. G. (2010) Serial Crime: The Psychology Of Behavioral Consistency & Applications to Criminal Careers and Linking. In Matt DeLisi and Kevin M. Beaver (Eds.). The Life-Course of Antisocial Behavior: Aggression to Delinquency to Crime. Chapter 12, pp. 201-210Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett, ISBN-13: 978-0763771362.

Sorochinski, M.* and Salfati, C. G. (2010) The consistency of inconsistency in serial homicide: Patterns of behavioral change across series. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 7, 109-136. DOI: 10.1002/jip.118.

Horning, A.*, Salfati, C. G., and Crawford, K.* (2010) Prior Crime Specialization and its Relationship to Homicide Crime Scene Types. Homicide Studies, Volume 14 Issue 4, November 2010, DOI: 10.1177/1088767910382833.

Trojan, C.* & Salfati, C. G. (2010) A multi-dimensional analysis of criminal specialization among single-victim and serial homicide offenders. Homicide Studies. 14(2), pp.107-131, DOI: 10.1177/1088767910364936.

Salfati, C. G. and Sorochinski, M.* (2010) Testing & Developing Empirical Models of Offender Profiling Using Facet Theory & Multidimensional Scaling procedures. Proceedings of the 2009 Facet Theory Association Meeting, Jerusalem, Israel.

Sorochinski, M.* and Salfati, C. G. (2010) The Utility of Facet Theory & Multidimensional Scaling procedures for Identifying Behavioral Patterns and Linking Serial Crimes. Proceedings of the 2009 Facet Theory Association Meeting, Jerusalem, Israel.

Osborne, J. R.*, Horning, A. M.*, & Salfati, C. G. (2010, June). Re-conceptualizing ‘Cooling-Off Periods’. Proceedings of the 2011 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group, Baltimore, MD, USA. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Salfati, C. G. (2010) Investigative Psychology: Scientific Developments in Offender Profiling. In the Proceedings of the 2010 CRINVE International Congress of Criminological and Investigative Sciences. Mantova, Italy.

2009

Salfati, C. G. & Sorochinski, M.* (Eds.) (2009) Symposium on Critical Incident Analysis Proceedings of the Academy for Critical Incident Analysis 2008 symposium. https://www.jjay.cuny.edu/academy-critical-incident-analysis

Salfati, C. G., Labuschagne, G., Horning., A.*, & Sorochinski, M.* (2009) Serial Homicide in South Africa: An Examination of all Solved Series since 1930. A Collaborative Project. Proceedings of the 2009 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group, Amherst. MA. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Drawbridge, D., J.* Scherer, A.*, & Salfati, C. G. (2009) A Comparison of Excessive Violence in Juvenile and Adult Homicide Crime Scene. Proceedings of the 2009 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group, Amherst. MA. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Trojan, C.* & Salfati, C. G. (2009) Methodological considerations of determining dominance in multi-dimensional analyses of crime scene behaviors and offender characteristics. Special Issue: Debates and Critiques within Investigative Psychology (D. V. Canter, ed.) Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling. Volume 5, no. 3, pp. 125-146, DOI: 10.1002/jip.88.

Fisher, C.* and Salfati, C. G. (2009) Behavior or Motivation: Typologies of Hate-Motivated Offenders. In Barbara Perry & Randy Blazak (Eds.) Hate Crime Series Volume 4: Hate Crime offenders. pp. 103-136 Praeger Perspectives. ISBN: 978-0-275-99569-0.

Salfati, C. G. (2009) Prostitute Homicide: An Overview of the Literature and Comparison to Sexual and Non-Sexual Female Victim Homicide. In D. Canter, M. Ioannou, & D. Youngs (Eds.)Safer Sex in the City: The Experience and Management of Street Prostitution.The Psychology, Crime and Law Series. Chapter 4, p. 51-68. Aldershot: Ashgate. ISBN: 978-0754626152

2008

Salfati, C. G. (2008) Profiling. In Cutler, B. L. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law. Sage Publications, ISBN: 9781452258911.

Salfati, C. G. (2008) Offender profiling: Psychological and methodological issues of testing for behavioural consistency. Issues in Forensic Psychology: Investigative Psychology. British Psychological Society, Division of Forensic Psychology Publications, Volume 8, pp.68-81.

Salfati, C. G., James, A. R.*, and Ferguson, L. (2008) Prostitution Homicides: A Descriptive Study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Volume 23 (4) 505-543, DOI: 10.1177/0886260507312946. 

Salfati, C. G. (2008) Redefining Serial Homicide in Light of Recent Findings. In Vogt, K., Gruenberg, K., and Sorochinski, M.* (Eds.) Homicide: A Focus on the Offender. Proceedings of the 2008 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group. Chicago, IL: Homicide Research Working Group. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Sorochinski, M.* and Salfati, C. G. (2008) Studying consistency and change in serial homicide: Issues of methodology. In Vogt, K., Gruenberg, K., and Sorochinski, M.* (Eds.) Homicide: A Focus on the Offender. Proceedings of the 2008 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group. Chicago, IL: Homicide Research Working Group. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Horning, A.* and Salfati, C. G. (2008) Theoretical issues in Serial Homicide: Multiple and live victims. In Vogt, K., Gruenberg, K., and Sorochinski, M.* (Eds.) Homicide: A Focus on the Offender. Proceedings of the 2008 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group. Chicago, IL: Homicide Research Working Group. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Huff-Corzine, L., Gruenberg, K. and Salfati, C. G. (Eds.) (2008). Homicide Studies: Ten Years After Its Inception. Proceedings of the 2007 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group. Chicago, IL: Homicide Research Working Group. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Salfati, C. G. (2008). Street Prostitutes: High Risk Victims of Homicide. In Huff-Corzine, L., Gruenberg, K. and C. Gabrielle Salfati (Eds.) Homicide Studies: Ten Years After Its Inception. Proceedings of the 2007 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group. Chicago, IL: Homicide Research Working Group. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Salfati, C. G. (Ed.) (2008). Connecting Research to Practice: New Directions in the Study of Homicide and Violence. Proceedings of the 2006 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group. Chicago, IL: Homicide Research Working Group. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Salfati, C. G. (2008). Profiling Serial and Sexual Homicide: An Update of The Research In C. Gabrielle Salfati (Eds.) Connecting Research to Practice: New Directions in the Study of Homicide and Violence. Proceedings of the 2006 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group. Chicago, IL: Homicide Research Working Group. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Park, J.* and Salfati, C. G. (2008) Sexual Homicide. In C. Gabrielle Salfati (Ed.) Connecting Research to Practice: New Directions in the Study of Homicide and Violence. Proceedings of the 2006 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group. Chicago, IL: Homicide Research Working Group. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

2007

Salfati, C. G. and Park, J.* (2007) Korean Homicide Crime Scene Analysis. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Volume 22 (11), 1448-1470, DOI: 10.1177/0886260507305716.

Bateman, A. L.* and Salfati, C. G. (2007) An Examination Of Behavioral Consistency Using Individual Behaviors Or Groups Of Behaviors In Serial Homicide. Behavioral Sciences and the Law. Volume 25 (4), 527-544, https://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.742.

Ponce, C., Salfati, C. G., Barton, S. M., Shon, P. C. (2007) Homicide Solvability Factors in El Salvador: An Initial Exploration. Law Enforcement Executive Forum. 7, 1, 151-172.

Salfati, C. G., & Ponce, C. (2007) Analisis de las Acciones en la Escena del Delito: Diferenciando los Homicidios Instrumentales y Expresivos en El Salvador. Cortesia de Ministerio de Seguridad.

2006

Almond, L.*, Canter, D. V. and Salfati, C. G. (2006) Youths Who Sexually Harm: A Multivariate Model of Perpetrator Characteristics. Journal of Sexual Aggression. Volume 12 (2), 97-114, DOI: 10.1080/13552600600823605.

Salfati, C. G. and Dupont, F.* (2006) Canadian Homicide: An Investigation of Crime Scene Actions. Homicide Studies. Volume 10, 118-139, DOI: 10.1177/1088767906288449.

Salfati, C. G. and Taylor, P.* (2006) Differentiating Sexual Violence: A Comparison of Sexual Homicide and Rape. Psychology, Crime and Law. Volume 12 (2), 107-126, DOI: 10.1080/10683160500036871.

Salfati, C. G. (2006). Profiling homicide: A multidimensional approach. In R. Keppel. (2006) Offender Profiling (2nd ed) p.299-319. OH: Thomson Mason. ISBN: 0-7593-8875-X.

Salfati, C. G. (2006). The Homicide Profiling Index (HPI) – A Tool for Measurements of Crime Scene Behaviors, Victim Characteristics, and Offender Characteristics. In C. Gabrielle Salfati (Ed.) Homicide Research: Past, Present and Future. Proceedings of the 2005 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group. Chicago, IL: Homicide Research Working Group. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Salfati, C. G. (Ed.) (2006). Homicide Research: Past, Present and Future. Proceedings of the 2005 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group. Chicago, IL: Homicide Research Working Group. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Hoover, S.* and Salfati, C. G. (2006) A Behavioral Comparison of Single and Serial Homicide, pp.160-165. In C. Gabrielle Salfati (Ed.) Homicide Research: Past, Present and Future. Proceedings of the 2005 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group. Chicago, IL: Homicide Research Working Group. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

Park, J.* and Salfati, C. G. (2006) Intrafamilial versus Stranger Homicides: The Difference in the Offender Demographics and Crime Scene Actions, pp.170-175. In C. Gabrielle Salfati (Ed.) Homicide Research: Past, Present and Future. Proceedings of the 2005 Meeting of the Homicide Research Working Group. Chicago, IL: Homicide Research Working Group. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

2005

Salfati, C. G. and Bateman, A.* (2005) Serial Homicide: An Investigation of Behavioral Consistency. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling. Volume 2, (2), 121-144, DOI: 10.1002/jip.27.

Salfati, C. G. and Kucharski, T. (2005). The Psychology of criminal Conduct. In J. Trevino and S. Guarino (Eds.) The Common Subject of Crime: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Anderson Publishing. ISBN: 9781593459666.

2004

Groves, R. M.*, Salfati, C. G., and Elliott, D. (2004). Stalking: The influence of prior offender/victim relationship. Journal Of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 1, 153-167, DOI: 10.1002/jip.013.

2003

Salfati, C. G. (2003). Offender interaction with victims in homicide: A multidimensional analysis of frequencies in crime scene behaviors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Volume 18 (5), 490-512, https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260503251069.

2001

Salfati, C. G. (2001) Le profilage de l'homicide Une approche de Psychologie d'investigation, pp231-241. In L. Montet (Ed.) Profileurs: Specialisation ou professionalisation? Collection Criminalite Internationals Presses Universitaires de France, editorial partner of Interpol. ISBN: 978-0-746-2628-2.

Salfati, C. G. (2001). A European perspective on the study of homicide. Homicide Studies, Volume 5 (4), 286-291, https://doi.org/10.1177/1088767901005004002.

Salfati, C. G. and Haratsis, H.* (2001). A behavioral analysis of Greek homicide. Homicide Studies, Volume 5 (4), 335-362, https://doi.org/10.1177/1088767901005004006.

Salfati, C. G. (2001). Evaluating Best Practice of Multi-agency Partnership in Lancashire Forensic Services. Commissioned research report for Lancashire Police Authority, Lancashire, UK.

2000

Salfati, C. G. (2000). Profiling homicide: A multidimensional approach. Homicide Studies, Volume 4 (3), 265-293, DOI: 10.1177/1088767900004003004.

Salfati, C. G. (July 2000). The nature of expressiveness and instrumentality in homicide, and its implications for offender profiling, pp.105-116. In P. H. Blackman, V. L. Leggett, B. L. Olson, and J. P. Jarvis (Eds. ) The varieties of homicide and its research. Washington, DC: Federal Bureau of Investigation. https://hrwg1991.org/past-meetings

1999

Salfati, C. G. & Canter, D. V. (1999). Differentiating stranger murders: Profiling offender characteristics from behavioral styles. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, Volume 17, 391-406, DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0798(199907/09)17:3<391::AID-BSL352>3.0.CO2-Z.

1998

Alison, L. J. & Salfati, C. G. (1998). An Investigative Psychology approach to crime scene analysis, pp101-112. In Methods of Case Analysis: An International Symposium Wiesbaden, Germany: Bundeskriminalamt publications, Volume 38.2. ISSN: 0174-5433.

Alison, L. J. & Salfati, C. G. (1998). Der Ermittlungspsychologische Ansatz, pp125-142. In Methoden der Fallanalyse: Ein Internationales Symposium. Wiesbaden, Germany: Bundeskriminalamt publications, Volume 38.1. ISSN: 0174-5433.

Salfati, C. G. (1998). Differentiating homicide crime scenes: Levels and variations of interpersonal involvement. Published abstract in Proceedings of The British Psychological Society.

Salfati, C. G. (1998) Homicide: A Behavioural Analysis of Crime Scene Actions and Associated Offender Characteristics. PhD Thesis. University of Liverpool. 

Salfati, C. G. on behalf of the Centre for Investigative Psychology (1998) Fast-Tracking Young Offenders Through The Criminal Justice System. Commissioned research report for Safer Merseyside Partnership, Liverpool, UK. 

Prior to 1998

Salfati, C. G. (1996). Homicide: Crime scene behavioural themes and associated offender characteristics. Published abstract in Proceedings of the British Psychological Society. 4,2, 91.

Salfati, C. G. (1995). Homicide: A typology of crime scene behaviours and offender characteristics. Proceedings of the British Psychological Society. 3,2, 120.

McAndrew, D. and Salfati, C. G. (1995). An exploration of police informants, their background and motivations. Published abstract in Proceedings of the British Psychological Society. 3,1, 19